Best writers. Best papers. Let professionals take care of your academic papers

Order a similar paper and get 15% discount on your first order with us
Use the following coupon "FIRST15"

Unit 7 replies aba

Unit 7 replies aba.

Help me study for my Psychology class. I’m stuck and don’t understand.

Respond to your first peer’s primary post by choosing a chaining procedure that is different from the one he/she chose to train teeth-brushing, and explain the process of chaining using the task analysis that the peer designed.

1. Shaping procedures teach behaviors that are not known by the client by using differential reinforcement (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2019). Differential reinforcement is used to reinforce behavior that is desired and diminish the old forms of the behavior as shaping proceeds. Shaping uses reinforcement of the tries to perform the final behavior. As the tries proceed, they will get closer and closer to the final wanted behavior. A shaping program may use prompting and include a discriminative stimulus (Cooper et al., 2019).

Chaining procedures utilize sequences of stimuli and responses to create new behaviors (Cooper et al., 2019). Each part of the chain includes a specific stimulus and response. Before beginning a chaining procedure, a task analysis must be completed. This involves breaking the specific task down into small and teachable steps. There are three different chaining procedures to then proceed with including backward, forward, and total task chaining (Cooper et al., 2019).

Backward chaining involves teaching the steps of the task in order. Once they get to the last step the teacher stops and lets the learner try. After the learner is successful in their performance of the last stop the teacher then stops at the second to last step and lets the learner try. Once the learner is successful with the last two steps this process continues with the third to last step and so on (Cooper et al., 2019).

Forward chaining involves teaching the steps of the task in order. The teacher allows the learner to complete the first step in the task sequence. Once the learner accomplishes the first step successfully, they receive reinforcement and the teacher completes the rest of the sequence (Cooper et al., 2019). In the next sequence, the teacher will allow the learner to do the first two steps until they successfully complete both and receive reinforcement. This will continue for all the steps in the task sequence.

Total-task chaining is a form of forward chaining (Cooper et al., 2019). With this chaining, the whole task sequence is taught. The learner is then able to try and perform each part of the sequence while receiving assistance from the teacher. The teacher uses prompting to help with any part of the sequence that the learner struggles with. The chain is taught until all steps are completed successfully without help (Cooper et al., 2019).

Shaping and chaining are useful in creating new behavior and increasing the ability to complete complex tasks (Cooper et al., 2019). Often these procedures are used to help with daily living skills and in turn, improves the quality of life for that individual.

Task analysis for teeth-brushing:

  1. Take toothbrush out of the holder and set on the counter.
  2. Grab toothpaste out of the holder and twist the cap off.
  3. Set cap on the counter and hold toothbrush still.
  4. Gently squeeze toothpaste tube over toothbrush bristles until a pea-sized drop of toothpaste is on them.
  5. Leave toothbrush on the counter and pick up the cap from the counter.
  6. Twist cap back on the toothpaste tube
  7. Put toothpaste tube back in the holder
  8. Pick up the toothbrush and turn the faucet on until a slow stream of water comes out
  9. Put the toothbrush in the stream of water for two seconds
  10. Take toothbrush out of the stream of water and turn the faucet off
  11. Put the toothbrush in mouth and rub in a circular motion around all teeth in the mouth
  12. Brush in a circular motion on the inside of the teeth on the bottom
  13. Brush in a circular motion on the inside of the teeth on the top
  14. Brush in a circular motion on the outside of the teeth on the bottom
  15. Brush in a circular motion on the inside of the teeth on the top
  16. Brush in a circular motion on the tops of the bottom teeth
  17. Brush in a circular motion on the bottoms of the top teeth
  18. Brush in a circular motion on the tongue
  19. Remove toothbrush from mouth and spit the excess toothpaste into the sink
  20. Turn the faucet on to a slow stream and put the toothbrush into the water stream until clean
  21. Remove toothbrush from the stream and gently splash water on any spit that is sitting in the sink with the other hand
  22. Turn the water stream off and dry hand off on hand towel
  23. Gently tap toothbrush off on edge of the sink until excess water has dripped off
  24. Place the toothbrush back into the holder

The chaining procedure that I will use for Freddie is backward chaining. I will complete all the steps until the last one (24) and let Freddie attempt each time until he is successful. After that, I will complete all steps until the second to last one (23) and let Freddie attempt them until he completes them successfully. This will continue until Freddie can do the whole task sequence successfully by himself.


Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2019). Applied behavior analysis, 3rd edition [VitalSource Bookshelf version]. Retrieved from vbk://9780134798769

Respond to your second peer’s primary post by selecting one component in his/her task analysis and explaining how you would apply a shaping procedure to teach that component if Freddie were having difficulty achieving proficiency. Be sure to break down the process by setting pre-determined criteria for Differential Reinforcement (DR).

The skill acquisition procedures of shaping consist of using differential reinforcement for successive approximations toward the result of a desired behavior (Cooper et al., 2020) Differential reinforcement is only presented to relevant responses that share a specified dimension or quality while placing any other response on extinction (Cooper et al., 2020).

The skill acquisition procedures of chaining consist of a behavior chain that links in sequence of responses that leads to a specific outcome. Responses produce a change in stimulus that functions as a conditioned reinforcement for each response. The SD acts as the next response in the chain (Cooper et al., 2020). Reinforcement at the last response in a chain will maintain stimulus changes that were produced by all steps before in the chain (Cooper et al., 2020).

A task analysis involves breaking down complex steps into smaller, teachable units (Cooper et al., 2020). There are four options for chaining: forward chaining, total-task chaining, backward chaining, and backward chaining with leaps ahead.

Forward chaining is taught from the beginning of the chain. The first step in the chain is reinforced. Then step 1 is again along with step 2. Once these two steps are completed together, they are reinforced, and another step is added until all steps are completed in the task.

Total-task chaining is like forward chaining. The learner is taught each step of the task in sessions. Assistance is given to the learner if he or she cannot perform it independently. The chain is then taught until all behaviors can be performed in a sequence (Cooper et al., 2020).

Backwards chaining consists of the trainer completing all the task analysis except the final step of the chain. Once the last step is finished, reinforcement is given to the learner. After this the trainer does all the steps of the analysis except the second to the last step and the last step. Reinforcement is presented only when the second to last step and the last step are completed successfully. This goes for all the prior steps in the task analysis (Cooper et al., 2020).

Freddie’s Tooth Brushing TA

  1. Get your toothbrush out of its holder.
  2. Put your toothbrush on the counter.
  3. Get your toothpaste out of the cabinet.
  4. Put your toothpaste tube on the counter.
  5. Get your empty cup out of the cabinet.
  6. Put your empty cup on the counter.
  7. Pick up your toothbrush.
  8. Turn on the water.
  9. Wet the bristles on the toothbrush.
  10. Put the toothbrush on the counter with bristles up.
  11. Pick up the tube of toothpaste.
  12. Twist the cap off the toothpaste.
  13. Put the lid on the counter.
  14. Squeeze a small amount of toothpaste onto the bristles of the toothbrush.
  15. Pick up the lid to the toothpaste.
  16. Screw on the lid to the toothpaste.
  17. Put the toothpaste tube back on the counter.
  18. Pick up the toothbrush.
  19. Put the toothbrush in your mouth
  20. Brush the top front of your teeth.
  21. Brush the bottom front of your teeth.
  22. Brush the top of the bottom teeth.
  23. Brush the underneath of the top teeth.
  24. Brush the back side of the top teeth.
  25. Take the toothbrush out of your mouth.
  26. Turn on the cold water.
  27. Rinse the toothpaste off the toothbrush bristles.
  28. Turn off the water.
  29. Put the toothbrush back into the holder.
  30. Pick up the empty cup.
  31. Turn on the cold water.
  32. Fill the cup up with water.
  33. Turn off the water.
  34. Put some water from the cup into your mouth (DO NOT SWALLOW)
  35. Swish the water around in your mouth.
  36. Spit the water into the sink.
  37. Dump the leftover was in the sink.
  38. Put the cup back in the cabinet.
  39. Pick up the toothpaste.
  40. Put the toothpaste in the cabinet.
  41. Grab a small towel and wipe your mouth


I would use a backward chaining procedure with Freddie. This would consist of me doing all the steps in the chain except the last step. Freddie will have to grab a small towel and wipe his mouth. Once he does this part of the task successfully, he will be reinforced. After this I will do all the steps up until number 40 in the task analysis. Freddie will have to complete both number 40 and 41 in the task analysis to receive reinforcement. This will continue until Freddie is able to finish the whole task analysis in full by himself.


Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., Heward, W. L. (2020). Applied Behavior Analysis. [Purdue University Global Bookshelf]. Retrieved from

Unit 7 replies aba